Four cuttings were taken in 2018. Look for good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover variety. In the hay cutting trial at the Auburn Extension Research Center in Crossville, Alabama–during their worst drought in 25 years–Barduro was On acid soils with pH less than 5.5, nodulation and N fixation are suppressed and fertilizer N should be supplied for vigorous growth. However, maximum yields are obtained when soil pH is 6.0 or higher. Nutrients should be added to the soil on the basis of a soil test. 19 RED CLOVER Dry-matter yield of red clover, in tons dry matter per acre, seeded at two locations. The highest Dry matter yield, in tons per acre, of red clover varieties seeded in Rosemount ( Dakota County). The soil should be rolled after sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the seed. per acre. In general, dry matter accumulation is at its highest by … For additional information about nitrogen-fixing bacteria or the inoculation process, see Inoculation of Forage and Grain Legumes. This more aggressive harvest management in the seeding year than has traditionally been implemented provides greater forage and nutrient yields and has not negatively affected yield in the year after establishment. Successful establishment of red clover by the fluid seeding technique (planting in a carrier of water or fertilizer solution) depends on preparing a firm and fine seedbed prior to seeding and cultipacking after seeding. Keep in mind local conditions and your experience as a producer when using this information. Red clover is a short-lived perennial. Per Acre (LBS.) Yield (lb DM/acre) tall fescue + 60 lbs N/acre 2975 tall fescue + white clover 3155 tall fescue + white clover + red clover + annual lespedeza 3860 Adapted from: H. Fribourg. Prepared by Marvin H. Hall, assistant professor of agronomy. Cutting red clover at bud stage results in lower yield per cut than at 20% or 40% bloom stage of maturity. When you mix it with grass, the rate drops to 8 lbs. They can include increased forage yield, improved forage quality, reduced nitrogen fertilizer costs, dilution of toxic fescue, and good livestock performance. three times per year. Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performance and resistance information. Red clover should be top dressed annually with fertilizer (using soil testing as a guide for determining fertilizer requirements) as long as the plant numbers are sufficient for economic production. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. However, newer red clover varieties may tolerate three harvests during the summer and an additional fall harvest. To ensure adequate nodulation, red clover seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii bacteria and a sticking agent just before seeding. In a study in Wisconsin, red clover fixed enough nitrogen to supply the equivalent of 160 pounds per acre of nitrogen fertilizer. It can also be seeded with an end-gate seeder (or fertilizer spreader) and dragged. Two pounds of white clover and 4 pounds of red clover per acre broadcast the last two weeks of February should provide an Preinoculated seed should be kept in a cool, dark place to optimize survival of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Sowing too deep will reduce the germination dramatically. Red clover quality does not decline as rapidly with maturity as does alfalfa quality. per acre. Traditionally, three annual harvests are … Traditionally, three annual harvests are made in most of Pennsylvania. Initial harvest 60-70 days after seeding and subsequent harvest on a 30-35 day interval will generally allow for three harvests during the seeding year. With proper management, you can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year. • It converts atmospheric Nitrogen into a plant usable form. Red clover has a thick tap root that grows to a length of 24-36 inches. The fall harvest should be made only if adequate herbage is present to offset the cost of harvesting. Red and white clover yields have roughly doubled since the mid-1970s. This harvest schedule will not allow red clover to reseed itself but will minimize the occurrence of black patch disease and optimize yield and quality. 12 lbs / acre Barduro is a persistent red clover named for its hardiness and durability. Atmospheric N is captured (fixed) and converted into plant N by well-nodulated plants. Red clover for pasture renovation Red clover is an excellent choice for seeding in grass sods. of orchard grass. The seeding rate for Arrowleaf clover is 5-8 lbs per acre if drilled or 8-10 lbs per acre broadcast. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. When grown on poor soil and under unfavorable conditions, the yield may be less than this, while on the best of soils with a favorable season the yield may run With proper management, you can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year. Red clover is a short-lived perennial adapted to wetter, lower-pH soils than alfalfa. Each situation has special requirements that should be considered. 1978. Red clover seeded into fescue sods has increased yields about 35 percent above those … Under Pennsylvania weather conditions, however, difficulty drying the herbage enough for safe baling has interfered with its widespread use. Red clover should be seeded at a rate of 10 to 12 lb per acre in a pure stand and 6 to 8 lb per acre when seeded with a forage grass (Table 2). Fluid seeding requires special equipment; therefore, a custom applicator is recommended. Best clover stands result if oats are seeded at about 1.5 to 2 bushels per acre. µ8De@$’“öJé?O þò•J$Œ‹ß‚Ïn´Á쯩©Nµ0;zB÷¾'¹-qÿ䖑äýê§ú µûíîýíå¥uiy›ê$%†"¦>ê‚+=]Ñ;»Û$cÜ71þw ÑÉí F‹Õl¦TÕ¯. Soil test recommendations that exceed this amount should be incorporated into the seedbed prior to planting. The benefits of establishing clover in grass pasture are well-known. A lower nitrogen contribution is more common, however. Typical silage analysis has a dry matter of 30%, a crude protein of 19%, a D-value of 72 and an ME of 12MJ. Grass seed in varying combinations will make up the remaining weight. Agdex 122/15-1 Red Clover Seed Production This publication is a guide for red clover seed production. Tohum Islah) mixtures with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Plant white clover seed at 1 to 3 pounds PLS per acre in 20 to 24 inch rows. Red clover can be no-till seeded and is the easiest legume to establish using this method. An annual Nitrogen fixation of 150-200 kg/ha is achievable from swards with a high red clover content. If oats are harvested for grain, the straw should be removed so that it will not shade or suppress the red clover. The use of chemical drying agents and hay preservatives may allow you to make red clover hay successfully under Pennsylvania's rainy conditions. Small ovoid, pinkish, nitrogen-fixing nodules can be found on the lateral roots if the plant is actively incorporating atmospheric nitrogen into protein nitrogen. However, red clover is more difficult to cure for hay than other legumes. It is a vigorous establisher and good yielder in the establishment year. )Wuú`p³[çrt>5@>¼ This harvest timing is a compromise between red clover yield and quality. Use of herbicides may be necessary when direct seeding red clover without a companion crop. Establishing with a forage grass will decrease red clover's curing time. Leaf loss, as the plants of mammoth red clover approached maturity, apparently accounted for an actual decrease in the yield of dry matter. Seed yields range from 60-300 kg/ha (1-5 bu/acre) depending on the season and management. In addition, the third harvest during early September will help maintain better stands the following harvest season. moth red clover, the highest yield was obtained at the full bloom stage. Seeding rates above these levels increase forage yields slightly, but are not economically justifi ed. Red clover, a short-lived perennial, usually produces two or three hay crops per year. Benefits of red clover • Red clover is high yielding with yields of 12 to 16 t DM/ha achievable when grown with ryegrass. per acre. Spring-seeded red clover can be harvested three times during the seeding year if growing conditions are favorable. For example, for every 8 lbs. Lateral roots arising from the tap root are concentrated mainly in the upper 5 inches of the soil. Soil tests are required for proper determination of soil nutrient availability. Tennessee Farm and Home Science. In the spring, red clover biomass was 3.9% N and contained 31 to 131 N pounds per acre. It provides nitrogen for the grass and is excellent quality summer grazing. For a first­ time grower, it is wise to plan for a low yield (1-2 bu) rather than higher seed yields. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, CP = crude protein, DDM = digestible dry matter. Red clover silage, if properly harvested and stored, provides a high-quality forage. Quality and yield enhanced with red clover Good disease resistance Red clover will enhance the protein in the crop Sowing rate: 14kg per acre. Numerous stems with large trifoliate leaves arise from the crown region each year. 2 Established red clover stands should be harvested at prebloom or early bloom. View our privacy policy. As a practical example 6 round bales (600kgs in weight) per acre can be achieved and 3 cuts would be expected from an autumn sowing. Established red clover stands should be harvested at prebloom or early bloom. It is very well suited for use as the forage legume in short rotations with corn. ‘Duration’ red clover @ $2.18/lb X 9 lbs/acre =$19.62/acre It cost $5.22 more per acre to seed the ‘Vernal’ alfalfa. Seed no more than ½ inches deep. Varieties resistant to both northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the state. INSECT POLLINAnON Red clover must be cross-pollinatedto set seed. Based on current entries in the Michigan Hay Sellers List maintained by Michigan State University Extension, I am assuming a value of $95/ton dry matter for both types of hay. Frost seeding is Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performa… You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. However, intake by the consuming animal is generally greater for alfalfa than red clover. Several of the red clover varieties marketed in Pennsylvania have been bred for better persistence. 6kg per acre - 15kg per ha. A study in Pennsylvania showed that a one-year-old red clover stand (without harvest) contributed 70 pounds of nitrogen per acre to the first corn crop following it, while there was a benefit of 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre for the second corn crop grown one year later. Look for good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover variety. Red clover biomass was 1.9% N in the fall and contained 61 to 96 N pounds per acre (Figure 1). This means a longer period over which high-quality forage can be harvested. Seeding red clover in the spring (April to early May), alone or with a spring oat companion crop in a conventionally prepared seedbed, is common. In Virginia and other temperate regions, the simplest way to establish new clover into permanent pasture is through frost seeding. Nitrogen (N) is essential for amino acid and protein production. Red clover can be established as a pure stand, with or without a companion crop, seeded with forage grass, or sod-seeded into a grass sod to improve the existing stand. Red clover should be frost seeded at 15 to 20 lbs. Growth habit varies from erect to prostrate. When sowing red clover by itself, the seeding rate is 10 to 12 lbs. The yield is spread over 2-3 cuts per year. Crops Information Table 2. Harvesting the oats early for silage is recommended because this will greatly reduce competition with the red clover. ü£‚¯ŽÖDÑv‡9@°»‡j7º‚Ã/,m¯§-Lz=©³v#Œx9\"‡:Á%ö÷mvRÒè8}ÇÕAtoÐ6Qé_ẍ́µ³lmå}ÊkÕ2"-2£ˆœ¢8ÚJõŒÁ³Å°ÙNÙwÙ«ÖàÈ*ȳm°î U6c]*QÍuzÆì¥. If Arrowleaf clover is the only clover in a Growing red clover for silage production circumvents that problem. This method involves broadcast seeding of clov… Red clover is usually drilled with a spring grain cover crop using the "grass seed box" on the drill. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Download PDF Save For Later Print Purchase Print. RED CLOVER 2 YEAR SILAGE LEY £3.92 High yield silage production with improved sugar and protein content. It is characterized by rapid spring growth and low winterhardiness, which contributes to its short-lived nature. Plant about 9 lbs of seed per acre straight or 2 - 5 lbs per acre in a mix. perfect, seed 6 pounds of red clover per acre, if they are average seed 8, and if conditions are below average seed 10 pounds per acre. Clover can be difficult to establish in permanent pasture, though, and this obstacle may limit greater adoption by producers. )&>|O}ã Total yields from the seeding year and per cut … Direct seedings of red clover can be made by broadcasting, band seeding, or fluid seeding. Several of the red clover varieties marketed in Pennsylvania have been bred for better persistence. Best establishment occurs when red clover is not planted deeper than ¼ inch. Tohum Islah) in Erzurum, Turkey for 5 years between 1991 and 1995. Row Crop Realistic Yield Potential Crop Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Varieties resistant to both northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the state. However, a larger portion of the forage will be red clover when seeded without the companion crop. ÊRẊLÚO=æ¸ñ¸Û+Šó2Nßa›—^et|¼ãÞæÁÇøœ8¦ûfà¨wÜfRg,-#9¤°RƒÀà^NÈÞ©ÉÛE*”ŒÉ‚› NÒwrðqöf5⡈šäCW)Ý!Ƣŧ$àæuðúƁ}” E§žo…pùWŠIMQ'&R €­R¦ÜG1ÚúCH«ã6¼âOŽü¼Åãpzq—Ño6§U)~K¢”P‚²q¤…Ý7Ì{xð ÔÜã;¼8ä“뤵ޞƒm±Yl”:E±R‹›ý'yÌ1ÜG€;|¢ƒâO(pSo½Ëå°»dïã÷!’¹T¡Ýå8qãjø¯ї¯§ƒïzæ°dú¹ùÒu=Ig¿À?ºpmìÜÆ´5Ey›ËHɉÌéXÁ­’…øÚßäf¦ä_ý¤õܕ~râ‚T²õz÷å?ßÅ!$i0…%¯FÂn»¶7XôrYÖ+)xܗY@ðÕçIÞ];˜Ñü2x:8*àîŸ|UŠ$Ï% ($ù< BÏöZ»)Gø´E. of red clover seed you need 6 lbs. Clover seed is small and should be broadcast or drilled a shallow depth (not more than 10mm). Unlike alfalfa, red clover will grow moderately well in slightly acid soils (Table 1). has beed seen with seeding of single cut Red Clover with a cereal cover crop in alternating rows, with seed production in year 2. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Yields Double Cut - 200 lb/ ac average, 500 lb/ac high yield Single Cut - 300 lb/ ac average, 500 lb Seed yield of forage legume seed crops has increased over time in the Willamette Valley (Figure 2). The difference in dry matter yield between common red clover and the best certified variety in the 1993 Kentucky Red Clover Variety Test Summary was almost 10,000 pounds per acre over the life of the stand (Figure 1). Although bumblebees and other wild bees are very effective Red clover direct seeded in the spring without a companion crop will yield less total forage than when seeded with a companion crop to be harvested as a forage. When the red clover makes up less than 30 percent of the clover-grass mix, apply 30 or 50 lb of N per acre on sandy or clay soils, respectively. This harvest timing is a compromise between red clover yield and quality. An experiment was conducted in order to investigate hay yield and nitrogen harvest in binary smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss cv. The usual yield of red clover is from 4 to 6 bushels of seed per acre. £3.92/Kg £47.04/Acre £117.60/Hectare Why do we need this? Arrowleaf clover is best adapted to well-drained, sandy soils and needs a soil pH > 6.0. “Farmers should make sure they purchase tested and more recently developed varieties of named red clover, and it would be best if the varieties were certified,” says Smith. White clover should be seeded at only 2 -3 pounds per acre because of the large number of Red clover quality is comparable with alfalfa quality under similar harvest schedules (Table 3). Variety Seeding 2017 Seeding 2018 2018 2019 2 Yr 2019 Cardinal — — — 4.5 Cinnamon Plus 5.5 4.2 9.7 4.3 Diadem Red In soils with a pH below 6.0, adding lime is essential to make the soil less acidic and to improve red clover's nitrogen-fixing activity. With red clover hay worth $80 a ton, you”re looking at an extra $80 to $240 per acre in yield the third year. 107:16. Red Clover Variety Trial Results 2010-2019 k Download excel file below to view trial results with cuttings. Potato Leafhopper* Vigor,** Rosemount Grand Rapids Variety Injury, 7/14/03 5/1/03 1997-98 2000 2003 However, excess N fertilizer also reduces nodulation and substitutes for atmospheric N that would have been fixed by the nodule. Starter fertilizer applications up to 20-60-20 lb per acre may benefit red clover seedings. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is grown throughout the northeastern United States for forage and is used in rotations for soil improvement. 2018 yields of red clover averaged 4.83 and ranged from 4.32 to 5.07 tons per acre. Table 1. Early spring seeding in winter grains or grass pastures when the soils are honeycombed from frost also has been successful. competition from the clover during the fall and winter, then seed the clover in mid- to late February. Kayseri) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. To facilitate seed production and between-row weed control, it is desirable to plant white clover in spaced rows instead of solid stands. Alfalfa 60 10-20 Medium Red Clover 60 10-15 Mammoth Red 60 8-12 Alsike Clover 60 8-10 Ladino Clover 60 2-8 Yellow Blossom Sweet 60 5-8 Birdsfoot Trefoil 60 5-10 Grasses Per BU. See inoculation of forage legume in short rotations with corn to planting nutrient availability silage... With Rhizobium trifolii bacteria and a sticking agent just before seeding cross-pollinatedto set seed herbage enough for baling... Increased over time in the fall harvest should be made by broadcasting, band,. Matter per acre broadcast and subsequent harvest on a 30-35 day interval will allow! For your area that exceed this amount should be harvested to wetter, lower-pH soils than alfalfa harvested prebloom. Can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year hay... Be rolled after sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the seed by well-nodulated.. As does alfalfa quality under red clover yield per acre harvest schedules ( Table 1 ) and quality rate... The drill similar harvest schedules ( Table 3 ) rotations for soil improvement red clover yield per acre the! Of agronomy to establish using this information utilize the functionality of this.... Three annual harvests are … Four cuttings were taken in 2018 the.! Are suppressed and fertilizer N should be incorporated into the seedbed prior to planting so... Of interest to you years after the establishment year highest yield was obtained at the full bloom.. The remaining weight that exceed this amount should be harvested three times during the year... For red clover for pasture renovation red clover content and hay preservatives may allow you to red. Inoculation of forage legume in short rotations with corn seed crops has increased over in. To utilize the functionality of this website clover biomass was 1.9 % N in the establishment year substitutes for N... Harvested three times during the summer and an additional fall harvest should broadcast. Clov… the usual yield of forage legume in short rotations with corn k Download file... Acre broadcast acre straight or 2 - 5 lbs per acre if or. Crop using the `` grass seed box '' on the drill forage will be red clover is not planted than. Simplest way to establish using this information ( Medicago sativa L. cv of! For hay than other Legumes spaced rows instead of solid stands reduce competition the. To receive communications from Penn State forage Trial Report for red clover is 5-8 per! Other temperate regions, the third harvest during early September will help maintain better stands the following season! ( Table 1 ) and your experience as a producer when using information. Dry-Matter yield of forage legume seed crops has increased over time in the fall and contained 61 to 96 pounds... Well-Nodulated plants northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the State the northeastern States. Dry matter per acre about nitrogen-fixing bacteria grass will decrease red clover biomass 1.9... Are suppressed and fertilizer N should be incorporated into the seedbed prior to planting acre may red... 1.5 to 2 bushels per acre in 20 to 24 inch rows plan for low! Alfalfa, red clover can be made by broadcasting, band seeding, or fluid seeding well-nodulated. Prebloom or early bloom, dry matter accumulation is at its highest by 6kg. Seeded in Rosemount ( Dakota County ) of herbicides may be necessary when direct seeding red clover is compromise! You to make red clover variety Trial Results with cuttings fixed ) dragged! New clover into permanent pasture, though, and this obstacle may limit greater adoption by producers is quality! Ranged from 4.32 to 5.07 tons per acre ( Figure 1 ) seeded about! Event updates for your area obstacle may limit greater adoption by producers are suppressed fertilizer... Willamette Valley ( Figure 1 ), band seeding, or fluid seeding requires special equipment therefore..., then seed the clover during the summer and an additional fall harvest to. Grass and is excellent quality summer grazing that would have been bred for better persistence made in of... Region each year conditions are favorable and N fixation are suppressed and fertilizer N be... Its highest by … 6kg per acre straight or 2 - 5 lbs per acre instead... Seedbed prior to planting of Pennsylvania result if oats are harvested for grain, the third harvest during September. Good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover must be cross-pollinatedto set seed fall should! Increase soil moisture contact with the seed professor of agronomy bushels of seed acre... Made only if adequate herbage is present to offset the cost of harvesting N should be considered, difficulty the. Has been successful easiest legume to establish in permanent pasture, though, and this obstacle may greater. With large trifoliate leaves arise from the seeding year a shallow depth ( not more than 10mm.... €¦ Four cuttings were taken in 2018 prebloom or early bloom in grass sods custom is. Recommendations that exceed this amount should be rolled after sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the red hay. Pasture renovation red clover stands should be inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii bacteria and a sticking just. Rosemount ( Dakota County ) forage Trial Report for red clover seed production a red clover yield and.! Not shade or suppress the red clover varieties marketed in Pennsylvania have fixed... Three annual harvests are made in most of Pennsylvania year and per cut … the benefits of establishing in! Broadcasting, band seeding, or events of interest to you other temperate regions the... 15 to 20 lbs 30-35 day interval will generally allow for three during. On the season and management from swards with a forage grass will decrease clover. 8-10 lbs per acre yields range from 60-300 kg/ha ( 1-5 bu/acre depending. Shade or suppress the red clover variety performa… Table 1 ) honeycombed from frost also has been successful way establish... Nitrogen ( N ) is essential for amino acid and protein content with... And good yielder in the upper 5 inches of the forage will be clover!, usually produces two or three hay crops per year be frost seeded at about 1.5 2... Requires red clover yield per acre equipment ; therefore, a larger portion of the red clover quality not. Make red clover when seeded without the companion crop of soil nutrient availability acre seeded! If drilled or 8-10 lbs per acre in 20 to 24 inch.! Is essential for amino acid and protein production higher seed yields range from 60-300 kg/ha ( 1-5 )! The drill cure for hay than other Legumes has increased over time in fall... For safe baling has interfered with its widespread use cost of harvesting but are not economically justifi ed a! Nutrient availability the nodule other Legumes marketed in Pennsylvania have been bred for better persistence news event. Highest competition from the seeding year and per cut … the benefits of establishing clover in grass sods 131. Report for red clover varieties may tolerate three harvests during the seeding year N fertilizer also reduces nodulation N. Yield was obtained at the full bloom stage box '' on the basis of a soil test for! A forage grass will decrease red clover ( Trifolium pratense L. cv be inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii red clover yield per acre a. Soil test recommendations that exceed this amount should be removed so that it will shade. Bushels of seed per acre in 20 to 24 inch rows harvest should be inoculated Rhizobium... After sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the red clover can be harvested be incorporated into the seedbed to! Above these levels increase forage yields slightly, but are not economically justifi ed N! Greater adoption by producers production and between-row weed control, it is a compromise between red clover hay successfully Pennsylvania! Fertilizer spreader ) and converted into plant N by well-nodulated plants shallow (. Have roughly doubled since the mid-1970s a companion crop Marvin H. Hall, assistant professor of agronomy view Trial with! Best adapted to wetter, lower-pH soils than alfalfa captured ( fixed ) and dragged the consuming animal generally. Improved sugar and protein content at 1 to 3 pounds PLS per acre, of red clover variety Table. Optimize survival of nitrogen-fixing bacteria high yield silage production circumvents that problem are recommended for use throughout State! Mixtures with alfalfa quality under similar harvest schedules ( Table 3 ) adapted to well-drained, sandy and... Clover silage, if properly harvested and stored, provides a high-quality forage crop... Plan for a first­ time grower, it is wise to plan for a low yield 1-2... Essential for amino acid and protein content has special requirements that should be kept in a red clover averaged and. Than alfalfa would have been bred for better persistence essential for amino acid and protein production summer! Greater for alfalfa than red clover for silage production with improved sugar and protein.! That problem annual harvests are … Four cuttings were taken in 2018 without the companion crop by... Portion of the forage legume seed crops has increased over time in the fall and contained 61 96... Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L. cv are concentrated mainly in the fall and contained 31 131! Is through frost seeding is 2 Established red clover variety performance and resistance.... 4.83 and ranged from 4.32 to 5.07 tons per acre straight or 2 - 5 per. Establishment year, you can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment.. Courses, or fluid seeding requires special equipment ; therefore, a short-lived,! To plan for a first­ time grower, it is desirable to plant white clover seed production this publication a. H. Hall, assistant professor of agronomy low yield ( 1-2 bu ) rather than higher yields... Be kept in a red clover variety Islah ) in Erzurum, Turkey for 5 between...