The most critical phase of multi-engine flight is those few seconds after takeoff—airspeed is low and the engines are developing their maximum rated horsepower. 7 Feathering—whereby the propeller blades are turned parallel to the relative wind—creates a substantial reduction in drag. The conditions also provide us with guidance—but understanding Vmc we can come up with a workable plan of action for multi-engine takeoffs—the Takeoff Briefing. To use the Forum you must be a member . This is, of course, very graphic, but it is critical for you to learn to apply all of your previously learned fear and precautions about spin avoidance at low altitude to the concept of Vmc (unique to multi-engine aircraft). So you can imagine what performance will be in less favourable conditions. The bad engine is at idle and has not been feathered. Super Low Time Engine/Props. Students / Resources / Ready Room / Multi-engine Class Rating Reading References/. The autorotation, however, is entered very rapidly—quite different from the somewhat gentle and passive spin characteristics of a single-engine trainer such as the Cherokee. Contact Form | Contact Us || It was Piper's very first all metal airplane and was well over built resulting in a very safe and reliable airplane for the years to come. When faced with an engine failure, the “worse case” would be an aircraft at maximum takeoff weight. It follows that a point will eventually be reached at which the yaw can no longer be controlled—the pilot has reached the travel limit of the corrective rudder pedal. Standard Operating Procedures | Why a Piper Geronimo Apache is Perfect for Multi-Engine Training and Renting Similarly, when a bad engine has been successfully feathered, Vmc is theoretically less than that indicated on the ASI. 12 The Piper Apache—used commonly for multi-engine training in the 1960s and early 1970s—is reported to have been notorious for its lack of single-engine performance with its 150-horsepower engines. Cherokee PA-28-180 Power Settings Table (pdf) Download. Consider the consequences of an engine failure during the takeoff roll—before the aircraft has left the ground. Aircraft performance stats and information for the Piper PA-23-150 Apache aircraft. The Piper PA-23, named Apache and later Aztec, is a four-to-six-seat twin-engined light aircraft aimed at the general aviation market. Also remember that while normal spin recovery is demonstrated by the aircraft manufacturer, this is not the case with Vmc-induced autorotation. We offer a 40 hour Agricultural Pilot course that is approved by most insurance companies. When the Apache was introduced, Piper’s resident trainer was the Colt, a reduced power Tri-Pacer, and the Apache was indeed a super-bird in contrast to the Colt. “Light Twins,” including the Seneca, are not required to climb with an engine failed, nor are they required to maintain altitude.11 The Seneca POH advises us that this aircraft is able to maintain certain parameters pertaining to singe-engine performance—a single-engine service ceiling of 3650’ ASL, at maximum gross weight, or 5000’ ASL, with a gross weight of 4030 lbs.—so it would appear that we are, at least, not in the category of “climbless” single-engine performance aircraft.12 Nevertheless, all manufacturers of light twins have to demonstrate and publish an accurate Vmc speed in accordance with the FAA’s definition. Spinner Welding FAA approved With an engine failure in a twin-engine aircraft, however, the most important feature is the longitudinal distance between the Centre of Gravity and the rudder. The point here is that should an engine failure occur when the aircraft remains in the marginal speeds—just after rotation—the pilot must respond without the slightest delay—the climb must be immediately abandoned, the aircraft (with a failed engine) levelled, and the gear and flaps retracted so that the erosion of airspeed is stopped, and the failed engine properly stowed by means of “feathering” the propeller.7, All of this requires careful and disciplined planning for any multi-engine launch from Langley Airport, but there are other occasions when Vmc can bite. Montana Diamond Aire is a FAA Approved PMA facility specializing in full STC d custom modifications for the Piper Apache, Aztec, and Geronimo CALL FOR INFO: (406) 752-5092 What is the meaning of that red radial line which appears on the ASI? 2 You will not be safe, for example, with an engine failure at Vmc + 1 MPH, yet in peril with an engine failure exactly at Vmc; instead, the concept of Vmc is purely theoretical, and in practice appears in gradations based on many factors with affect a Vmc occurrence. The engine that has failed is the Critical Engine. Multi Engine: Piper Apache : 280/HR Piper Apache and Piper Aztec Model History The good engine is developing full power. If we cannot accomplish this task, we are left with only one option for survival—if redline penetration is imminent, the throttle of the good engine must be closed and we must deal with the engine failure as if it occurred on a single engine aeroplane. However, you must remember that it is power (or thrust) that causes the Vmc autorotation, and full power from the good engine is therefore the worst-case scenario for getting into Vmc trouble. It is a 4-seat, fully IFR equipped an excellent multi engine trainer and cross country machine. 15 To recover from a stabilized spin the pilot must counter the stabilizing forces—the counter measures that can be exerted by the pilot during a spin recovery procedure are extremely limited owing to a lack of aerodynamic pressure over effective control surfaces. 5 hours Flight Time (Piper Apache), 10 hours ground instruction. At Langley Airport, however, the circumstances are quite different—we will not attain 105 MPH until we have crossed the road traffic at either end of the paved runway. The Piper Apache is largely relegated to the training function for those looking for cheap-to-fly time builder but the Piper Aztec remains one of general aviation’s stalwart twins and although it has high operating costs, it can be bought relatively cheaply. Safety Plan and Policy, Unit 110, 5385- 216 Street Langley, British Columbia, V2Y 2N3 Canada, E-mail : Administration@langleyflyingschool.com. In and of itself, these choices are straightforward. Continuing with “worse case” theme, however, Vmc is determined with the assumption that the pilot has failed to feather the bad engine, resulting in the maximum amount of drag being created. The more power produced on the good engine, the more rudder will be required to stop the adverse yaw that results from asymmetric thrust forces. Ag Spraying. Wing tips list $2295 only $1995. We have six Piper Cherokee’s, one Cessna 150, one Mooney Mark-20B, one Piper Apache and a Enstrom F28 helicopter. The aircraft is at maximum takeoff weight. 3 The performance obtained is based on the assumption that the propeller of the failed engine is feathered, and Piper produces a performance graph (see p. 9-8 of the POH) that is designed to predict singe-engine climb performance; in practical terms, with the best of conditions—sea level density altitude, light weight, etc.—the performance is comparable to the performance of a very heavily loaded Piper Cherokee. If we can feather the prop on the bad engine, if we can recover the flap, if the aircraft is lightly loaded with a forward Centre of Gravity, etc., we increase our chances of successfully managing an engine failure. I will try to save her.$$ Cash payment. Any slower and the aircraft will begin to roll (in the direction of the bad engine) and pitch-up (i.e., yaw produces roll which, in turn produces pitch changes). Vmc is again determined with the “worse case”—in regard to Centre of Gravity location, the most rearward. Flight Schools had better check out this aircraft. WANT TO BUY PIPER APACHE • WANTED • I Want to buy your old, abandoned and unused Piper Apache. West Palm Beach Florida, Call John Lumley 561-499-1115 When the gear is fully up or fully down and the selector is in the corresponding position, 12 The Piper Apache—used commonly for multi-engine training in the 1960s and early 1970s—is reported to have been notorious for its lack of single-engine performance with its 150-horsepower engines. A Vmc encounter will appear as a spin. ... $200/hr. Piper Apache 150 . The concept of a critical engine is rooted in appearance of asymmetric thrust—or P-factor—as the angle of attack is increased. Wanted ||About obtained from Flight Service. Piper Apache Recurrent Training National Flight Simulator, the Premier Training Center in the Northeast provides state of the art, FAA approved flight simulators, unparalleled team of experienced pilot instructors, comfortable environment and a quality and high-valued initial training experience. Twin Oaks Airpark Come fly one of the best multi-engine trainers Piper ever created in a PA-23 Piper Geronimo Apache. An engine failure between 80 MPH and 105 MPH therefore presents us with the probability of marginal success. The content of this website is protected by copyright and reproduction in whole or in part is only authorized with the written consent of Alex Zhang, President and CEO, Langley Flying School. Instead, there is a grey transition area above the dangerous Vmc speeds, yet below the safe single-engine climb speed.2 It is in relation to this “no-man’s-land” speed range that we must develop a plan of action for every multi-engine takeoff and departure. We are also provided with a second radial line on the ASI—the “blue line”—that sits on the Seneca ASI at the 105-MPH position. As airspeed decreases, rudder authority—used primarily to counter the yaw—diminishes. landings, John Lumley, View member planes and 1 You would think that the loss of thrust would be only 50%, but a sizable portion of the remaining 50% thrust from the one good engine is consumed by the increased drag from the bad engine—particularly the windmilling propeller. Vmc would of course occur at a lower speed if the aircraft were under the influence of ground effect. Search 1000's of Aircraft listings updated daily from 100's of dealers & private sellers. Multi-Engine Training. If we have an engine failure during takeoff and we are airborne, our job is to make the aircraft ASI needle moves toward the “blue end” of this speed range as fast as safely possible. Speed is self-evident; conversely, it is reasonably safe, for example, to cross mountains at night in a twin, provided, for example, weather conditions are right, and options—and the associated planning—exist for a possible failure of one of the two engines. Drag is increased with the use of flaps, and therefore flaps cause greater draw on the precious little remaining thrust from the good engine. For this reason, a reduction of power from full-power settings will have the attractive effect of reducing Vmc. Conversely, the higher the altitude at which single-engine maximum power occurs, the lower will be the actual speed at which Vmc occurs. At airports with long runways, the risks are reduced considerably—the aircraft will be normally established in a climb at 105 MPH by the time it crosses the departure end of the runway. Twin Oaks Airpark has a 1955 Piper Apache with the Geronimo conversion. With the Seneca, when an engine quits during flight, you will immediately lose about 80% of the effective thrust you normally had with two engines.1 Moreover, unless you immediately change and reconfigure the aircraft’s pitch attitude and drag predicament, the airspeed indicator will quickly migrate towards the red radial line that appears on the low end of the ASI—this red radial indicating sea-level Vmc. Scroll down below to read and see details about these airplanes. Us|| Member planes || As the red line is approached—located at the 80-MPH mark on the Seneca’s ASI— the truly unthinkable happens—with full thrust developing from the still functioning engine, the aircraft will autorotate onto its back and spin into the ground with you and your passengers underneath a two-ton burning mess of avgas and splintered aluminium. Most students can add multi engine privileges in 10-15 hours of flight instruction. Our aircraft are well maintained and fun to fly. Vmc determination is based on the worse-case scenario of a failed engine right after takeoff, so testing for certification is done in the normal takeoff configuration of the aircraft with respect to flap settings. This plane makes a great trainer and is reasonably priced at $270 an hour. Essentially, Vmc is defined as the speed below which the aircraft will go out of control when the following conditions exist: Initially you would think that “full power” is a good thing—after all, this is what will get us to our precious 3650’ if the engine quits at maximum gross weight. Confucius, Commercial Pilot with Applied Human Factors Aviation Diploma, Multi-crew Standard Operating Procedures Training, Langley Flying School Bursaries and Awards, Instructor Teaching Load and Availability, Flight Instructor Aircraft Responsibility, Aircraft Maintenance Supervisor Training Record, Request to Start Advanced Flight Training. 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